The Political Thought of John Locke-An Historical Account of the Argument of the ‘Two Treatises of Government’ by John Dunn. Cambridge at the University Press, 1969. 521 07408 8
The Political Thought of John Locke could have been called “My Thoughts about John Locke” being that it reads as if you were listening to a lecture being given by one of your favorite professors; it is fact an informative, thought-provoking, and challenging work on the political theory of Mr. Locke. The challenge is a result of who this work is written for, not the general public, but for those who have a profound (and perhaps professional) interest in Locke. Dr. Dunn assumes that the reader will have an understanding of not just Locke’s works but those of Locke’s contemporaries such as Sir Robert Filmer and Thomas Hobbes, not to mention the field of Political Theory in general. His professed goal is to separate Locke from the ‘historical’ record and move towards an ‘excavation of Locke’s mind,” a goal which I would say he accomplishes with some success.
The works two strongest parts are first his comparison of Locke to Hobbes, examining what Dunn says is Hobbes effort to create Political Theory out of an ‘ethical vacuum.’ while examining how Locke starts from a religious perspective, and second, a subtle yet pervasive examination of the effects of viewing a theorist in a historical v a structuralist motif. The first point is particularly interesting given the recent controversy in how much attention Locke was paying to Hobbes. Dunn is clear in his estimation, saying that Locke “wrote to answer the terrible, if undeniably clever Hobbes.” In fact, we could say that Dunn credits Locke’s interaction with his contemporaries’ for much of what makes Locke interesting; further, for Dunn, this interest is primarily the role of religion in Locke’s writings. Dunn remarks that Locke has a practical use for God, using God as a tool rather than an object of veneration, as he says, “What is most obvious is His tactical availability for Locke’s purposes-not the veneration He might be supposed to elect.”
The second point is somewhat ironic, given that we are drawn towards understanding the historical/structuralist dichotomy in an historical perspective. This work, however, was written in 1969 and had no doubt been many years in the making, ending up being published at the height of the structuralist movement. Dunn presents a structuralist argument, saying that we cannot trust what Locke meant by reading his words since he wrote “perhaps unconsciously” in “invisible ink”. He says that to understand Locke, we must hold him up to “the light (or heat) of the twentieth-century mind.” So we are presented with a problem, is Locke influential because his works (as many say) lead to the era of liberalism (and individualism), which ultimately resulted in the American and (in part) French revolutions, or are his ideas important for how they speak to us today and in the future?
Fortunately for Dunn (not to mention Locke), we do not need to choose. Both of their works can be appreciated for what they are, an examination of the interactions between people and ideas that express themselves in political theory, which helps to give meaning to how we interact with our world. The Political Thought of John Locke is challenging indeed, but well worth the effort if such issues are important to you.
 p. ix, interestingly this is in spite of the sub-title of this work, which points towards the tension which exists when we examine Locke in any but the most traditional ways.
 p. ix
Important points are sometime buried in dense hard to read paragraphs.
Assumes an understanding of Locke that many readers will not have.
Secular ‘values voters’ are becoming an electoral force in the US – just look closely at 2020’s results
Phil Zuckerman, Pitzer CollegeThe voting patterns of religious groups in the U.S. have been scrutinized since the presidential election for evidence of shifting allegiances among the faithful. Many have wondered if a boost in Catholic support was behind Biden’s win or if a dip in support among evangelicals helped doom Trump.
But much less attention has been paid to one of the largest growing demographics among the U.S. electorate, one that has increased from around 5% of Americans to over 23% in the last 50 years: “Nones” – that is, the nonreligious.
I am a scholar of secularism in the U.S., and my focus is on the social and cultural presence of secular people – nonreligious people such as atheists, agnostics, humanists, freethinkers and those who simply don’t identify with any religion. They are an increasingly significant presence in American society, one which inevitably spills into the political arena.
The new ‘values voters’
For years, both scholars and pundits have referred to the political impact of “values voters” in America. What that designation generally refers to are religious men and women whose scripturally based values coagulate around issues such as opposing marriage equality and women’s reproductive autonomy.
But dubbing such religious voters as “values voters” is a real semantic bamboozle. While it is true that many religious Americans maintain certain values that motivate their voting behavior, it is also very much the case that secular Americans also maintain their own strongly held values. My research suggests they vote on these values with just as much motivation as the religious.
This played out in November in a number of ballot initiatives that have flown under the national media radar.
Voters in Washington state, for example, passed Referendum 90, which requires that students receive sex education in all public schools. This was the first time that such a measure was ever on a state ballot, and it passed with ease – thanks, in part, to the significant number of nonreligious voters in the Pacific Northwest.
The fact is, Washington is one of the least religious states in the union. Well over a third of all Washingtonians do not affiliate with any religion, more than a third never pray and almost 40% never attend religious services.
The referendum’s passing was helped by the fact that nonreligious adults tend to value comprehensive sex education. Numerous studies have found that secular Americans are significantly more likely to support comprehensive sex education in school. In his research, sociologist Mark Regnerus found that secular parents were generally much more comfortable – and more likely – to have open and frank conversations with their children about safe sex than religious parents.
Meanwhile, voters in Oregon – another Pacific Northwestern state that contains one of the most secular populations in the country – passed Measure 110, the first ever statewide law to decriminalize the possession and personal use of drugs.
This aligns with research showing that nonreligious Americans are much more likely to support the decriminalization of drugs than their religious peers. For instance, a 2016 study from Christian polling firm Barna found that 66% of evangelicals believe that all drugs should be illegal as did 43% of other Christians, but only 17% of Americans with no religious faith held such a view.
Science at the ballot box
Secular people are generally more trusting of scientific empiricism, and various studies have shown that the nonreligious are more likely to accept the evidence behind human-generated climate change. This translates to support for politicians and policies that take climate change seriously.
It may also have factored in to the success of a November ballot measure in Denver, Colorado, to fund programs that eliminate greenhouse gases, fight air pollution and actively adapt to climate change. The ballot passed with over 62% of the vote – and it is of note that Denver is one of the most secular cities in the nation.
Meanwhile voters in California – another area of relative secularity – passed Proposition 14 supporting the funding of stem cell research, the state being one of only a handful that has a publicly funded program. Pew studies have repeatedly found that secular Americans are far more likely than religious Americans to support stem cell research.
Values versus values
On issues that the religious right has held some sway in recent years, there is evidence of a counterbalance among secular “value voters.”
For example, while the religious have been more likely to oppose same-sex marriage, secular Americans are more likely to support it, and by significant margins. A recent Pew study found that 79% of secular Americans are supportive, compared to 66% of white mainline Protestants, 61% of Catholics, 44% of Black Protestants and 29% of white evangelicals.
There are many additional values that are prominent among secular Americans. For example, the U.S. Secular Survey of 2020 – the largest survey of nonreligious Americans ever conducted, with nearly 34,000 participants – found strong support for safeguarding the separation of church and state.
Other studies have found that secular Americans strongly support women’s reproductive rights, women working in the paid labor force, the DACA program, death with dignity and opposition to the death penalty.
According to Eastern Illinois University professor Ryan Burge’s data analysis, around 80% of atheists and agnostics and 70% of those who described their religion as “nothing in particular” voted for Biden.
This may have been decisive. As Professor Burge argues, “it’s completely fair to say that these shifts generated a two percentage-point swing for Biden nationwide. There were five states where the gap between the candidates was less than two percentage points (Georgia, Arizona, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania and North Carolina). Four of those five went for the Biden – and the nones were between 28% and 37% of the population in those key states.”
As this past election has shown, secular values are not only alive and well, but they are more pronounced than ever. It is also noteworthy that more openly nonreligious candidates were elected to public office than ever before. According to an analysis by the atheist author and activist Hemant Mehta, not only did every member of the secular Congressional Freethought Caucus win reelection, but 10 state senators who are openly secular – that is, they have made it publicly known that they are nonreligious – were voted into office, up from seven two years ago. There is now an all-time high of 45 openly secular state representatives nationwide, according to Mehta’s analysis. Every one of them is a Democrat.
Religious voters will certainly continue to vote their values – and for politicians that express similar views. But so, I argue, will secular voters.
PBS is making it’s documentary, The Worlds of Ursula K. Le Guin free to watch through 8/30/20! Ursula K. Le Guin was a trailblazer writing about complex and interesting societies, her stories reflected the deepest questions that mainstream society has only recently begun to face in meaningful ways. The Left Hand of Darkness (winner of both the Hugo and Nebula awards) in particular is a must read.
View it on the Open Culture web site before it goes away.
A Review of “American Gothic Literature” Ruth Bienstock Anolik, 2019, McFarland & Company Inc. 306 pages Like the genre it examines, this work is insightful, inspiring, exhilarating, and challenging. However, it is not for the faint of heart! A somewhat...
Via #Shutdownstem On June 10, 2020, we will #ShutDownAcademia, #ShutDownSTEM, and #Strike4BlackLives. In the wake of the most recent murders of Black people in the US, it is clear that white and other non-Black people have to step up and do the work to eradicate...
Why should we care about 1970’s Television? Neil Postman’s Amusing Ourselves to Death is one of many works from the latter half of the 20th Century which bemoans what he calls the “Age of Show Business,” or what other people have called the culture of...
Professor John Mullan examines the origins of the Gothic, explaining how the genre became one of the most popular of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, and the subsequent integration of Gothic elements into mainstream Victorian fiction. Gothic fiction began...
In 1930, a year into the Great Depression, John Maynard Keynes sat down to write about the economic possibilities of his grandchildren. Despite widespread gloom as the global economic order fell to its knees, the British economist remained upbeat, saying that the...
Liberals say that rising income inequality is hurting economic growth. Libertarians say that government regulation is to blame. Who’s right?Both, say Steven Teles and Brink Lindsey, who visited Stanford Graduate School of Business recently as part of its...
Human Rights Watch is seeking a Researcher and Advocate on Digital Rights to investigate, analyze, and advocate against human rights abuses related to online activities. The role of the Researcher and Advocate will include documenting and conveying the...
When you have to many booksLiving in a Silicon Valley cottage it became clear that something was going to have to go. Unfortunately for me that meant that my wife’s and my rather large collection of books was on the chopping block. So one weekend we took...
Nearly one of every four people in the US is religiously unaffiliated. David Mislin, Temple University Last fall, the nonpartisan Public Religion Research Institute noted the growing number of religiously unaffiliated Americans: Nearly one of every four...
Attribution: Science Friday
Celebrating the 25th anniversary of the X-Files(!) 21st Century Fox's game division FoxNext Games is about to release "The X-Files: Deep State". A role playing mystery/SF game that will transport you into the world of the FBI's paranormal investigators. ...
The original series’ Walter Koenig recently shared his opinion on modern Star Trek, including the three recent movies and Star Trek: Discovery.... Check it out: Koenig On Modern Star Trek
In its 1977 review, The Dallas Morning News called Chewbacca a "Wookie." Now, on the film's 40th anniversary, the long national nightmare has ended. On that note: We, too, have something to confess. (Image credit: Elaine Thompson/AP) Source: 40 Years After 'Star Wars'...
Good news everybody, Matt Groening is giving us the first new Futurama content in years! Bad news, it will be a mobile game. Let's just hope it is better then the Simpson's games! Still, I'm sure it will be worth checking out when it is released (hopefully) later this...
I want my anti-matter! It’s hard to make, hard to store, expensive and volatile. But damn it, I want some! “If you had some,” you might ask, “what would you do with it?” Really? Do you have to ask? I would use it for fuel to get me to Alpha Centauri. Or perhaps...
Chronicles (SF&F forum)
Politics and Political Science
Key L=left R=Right M=moderate
crooks and liars (L)
The Economist (M)
The Hill (R)
Learn Liberty (Libe)
Liberty Explained (Libe)
Mother Jones (L)
Monthly Review (S)
The Nation (L)
The New American (R)
The New Republic (L)
The XX Committee (R)
Cato Institute Libe
Law and Liberty (R)
Libertarian Party (Libe)
Research and Academics
Literature and Media
Physical Science and Technology